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Friday, August 31, 2012

Earth Layers

It is a Miracle of the Quran and the Prophetic Tradition. We're going to see the compatibility between science and our religion….

Probing the depths of the Earth and taking pains to uncover the secrets of its internal structure and composition, scientists came to realize that the old myths about the Earth are scientifically baseless. Scientists in the twentieth century decided that the Earth consists of only three layers. Having discovered the sphericity of the Earth, they suggested that this sphere comprises three parts; the core, the crust which is very thin compared to the total volume of the Earth and a third layer in between the two called The Mantle.

Evolution of the scientific facts

However, the three-layer theory didn’t hold true for long, owing to recent discoveries in Geology. Measurements and recent tests showed that the pressure of the material of the Earth’s core is immense and reaches three million times the pressure at the surface.

Under such pressure the material transforms into the solid state, which means that the core of the Earth is solid and is enclosed by a liquid layer of extremely high temperature. This also means that the core of the Earth consists of 2 layers not just one; a solid inner core and a liquid upper core.

Measurement devices developed and scientists were able to observe a clear distinction between the different parts of the Earth’s interior. A layer of hot rocks underneath the crust was discovered, that is the Lithosphere. Underneath the Lithosphere are three layers distinct in density, pressure and temperature.

Having discovered these layers, scientists found themselves dividing the Earth into seven layers and no more. The Cut-away view below shows these layers drawn to scale according to the recent findings of scientists. The fact that the Earth comprises seven layers is established. It is taught at universities and observed through seismographs and through studying the magnetic field of the Earth.

Scientists also found out that the atom consists of seven layers which confirms the uniformity of the creation because the system that governs the creation of the whole universe is one, the earth consists of seven layers and each atom on it consists of seven layers too.

The figure demonstrates the seven layers of the Earth. We note the thin crust then the four layers of the Mantle increasing gradually in thickness. Next is the liquid outer core then the solid inner core. They all add up to seven layers.

The layers of the Earth are radically different in composition, density, temperature and material. Hence, the Earth can not be considered as one layer as was previously believed. The notion of the seven layers is relatively new and didn’t exist at the time the Quran was revealed. Scientists in the twenty-first century concluded that the Earth consists of seven layers, but what does the Quran have to say about that?

What the Quran says:

Telling of the seven layers of the Heavens and the Earth, God says in the Holy Quran:

1- "He (Allah) Who created the seven heavens one above the other" [Al Mulk: 3]

2- "Allah is He Who created seven heavens and the earth the like of them" [ Al Talaaq: 12]

The first verse is talking about two characteristics of the heavens; their number, that is seven, and the arrangement of them (one above the other) or ‘in layers’. The second verse asserts the similarity between the Earth and the heavens (And the Earth the like of them), so as the heavens consist of seven layers, the earth identically consists of seven layers.

Let’s ponder on (one above the other). It denotes the layering of the Earth, and this is what today’s scientists discovered. Now we can see that the Quran had determined the structure of the Earth, which is in layers, and had also determined the number of these layers, that is seven. In other words, the Quran had given a precise description of the earth’s interior, thus it preceded the scientists of the twenty-first century by fourteen centuries in proving this fact. Isn’t this a splendid miracle of the Quran?

What the Hadith says:

Pondering on the Hadith (sayings) of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), we’ll find one that asserts the existence of the seven layers of the earth concentric and one above the other. The prophet (PBUH) said: (Whoever usurps even one span of the land, his neck will be encircled because of it with seven earths) [narrated by Al Bukhari]. Here the prophet gave another characteristic of the layers, encirclement, by saying (will be encircled with it) and this is how the layers truly look like, they are concentric and each one encircles the one underneath it.

The question here is: Isn’t this a great miracle of the prophet? Not just that the Hadith determines the number of the earth’s layers, seven, and determines the arrangement of these layers, but it also bears an indication to the sphericity of the earth.

From this article we find that the Holy Quran and the Hadith reached these facts about the earth long before modern science did. The Quran had given us the precise description of the earth’s internal structure (layers one above the other) and also had given us the exact number of these layers, seven, while it took scientists long years of theorizing and re-theorizing to come up with the same conclusions. So exalted be Allah who said in His Holy Book : (And in the earth are portents for those whose faith is sure- and also in yourselves, can ye then not see) [Al Thariaat: 21-22].